Introduction to Network Cabling
In the Networking Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network’s topology, protocol, and size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network.
The following sections discuss the types of cables used in networks and other related topics.
- Twisted Pair Cable
- Coaxial Cable
- Fiber Optic Cable
- USB Cable
- Straight-through Cable
- Crossover Cable
- Rolled Cable
1. Twisted Pair Cables
Twisted pair are invented in1990s and is the most popular type of network cable by far around the world as the leading cabling standard for Ethernet. It replaced the old coaxial cable that was unable to keep up with the constantly growing need for faster and more reliable networks
Two primary types of twisted pair cable industry standards have been defined : Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted Pair (STP).
Modern Ethernet cables use UTP wiring due to its lower cost, while STP cabling can be found in some other types of networks such as Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI).
Categories of Twisted pair Cable are
|CAT1||Up to 1Mbps||Old Telephonic Cable|
|CAT2||Up to 4Mbps||Token Ring Networks|
Up to 10Mbps
|10 BaseT Networks|
Up to 16Mbps
|Token Ring Networks|
|CAT5||Up to 100Mbps||Ethernet , Fast Ethernet|
|CAT5e||Up to 1Gbps||Fast Ethernet , Gigabit Ethernet|
|CAT6/CAT6a||Up to 10Gbps||Gigabit Ethernet , 10G Ethernet (55)|
|CAT7||Up to 10Gbps||Gigabit Ethernet , 10G Ethernet (55)|
2. Coaxial Cable
Invented in the 1880s, “coax” was best known as the kind of cable that connected television sets to home antennas.
Coaxial cable is also a standard for 10 Mbps Ethernet cables.These cables consist of an inner copper wire of varying thickness surrounded by insulation and another shielding. Their stiffness caused network administrators difficulty in installing and maintaining thinnet and thicknet.
3. Fibre Optics Cable
Fiber optic network cables work using strands of glass and pulses of light.
These network cables are bendable despite being made of glass. They have proven especially useful in wide area network (WAN) installations where long distance underground or outdoor cable runs are required and also in office buildings where a high volume of communication traffic is common.
Two primary types of fiber optic cable industry standards are defined – single-mode (100BaseBX standard) and multimode (100BaseSX standard). Long-distance telecommunications networks more commonly use single-mode for its relatively higher bandwidth capacity, while local networks typically use multimode instead due to its lower cost.
4. USB Cables
Most Universal Serial Bus (USB) cables connect a computer with a peripheral device (keyboard or mouse) rather than to another computer. However, special network adapters (sometimes called dongles) also allow connecting an Ethernet cable to a USB port indirectly. USB cables feature twisted pair wiring.
5. Straight-through Cable
The Straight-through Cable is used to connect two different devices like Switch to Router. Four wires are used in straight-through cable to ethernet devices.
6. Crossover Cable
The Crossover Cable is used to connect two similar devices like Switch to Switch or Router to Router.
7. Rolled Cable
The Rolled Cable is not used to connect any type of ethernet connections together, We use Rolled ethernet cable to connect a host interface of router console serial port.